By Wayne Biddle
From the ravages of the Ebola virus in Zaire to outbreaks of pneumonic plague in India and drug-resistant TB in big apple urban, contagious illnesses are struggling with again opposed to once-unconquerable smooth medication. Public predicament approximately infectious affliction is at the upward push as newspapers trumpet the arrivals of latest germs and the reemergence of outdated ones.
In A box advisor to Germs, Pulitzer Prize-winning technology author Wayne Biddle brings readers nose to nose with approximately 100 of the best-known (in phrases of occurrence, strength, ancient significance, or perhaps literary curiosity) of the myriad pathogens that dwell in and round the human inhabitants. in addition to actual descriptions of the organisms and the afflictions they reason, the writer offers folklore, philosophy, heritage, and such illustrations as 19th century drawings of plague-induced panic, microscopic pictures of HIV and Ebola, and wartime posters caution servicemen opposed to syphilis and gonorrhea.
From cholera to chlamydia, TB to HIV, bubonic plague to Lyme sickness, rabies to Congo-Crimean encephalitis, anthrax to Zika fever, and again to strong previous rhinitis (the universal cold), A box advisor to Germs is either a convenient reference paintings to raised comprehend today's headlines and a desirable examine the superb effect of micro-organisms on social and political history.
Winner of the yankee scientific Writers Association's Walter C. Alvarez Honor Award.
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Extra resources for A Field Guide to Germs (Revised and Updated Edition)
SOM mRNA+ and SOM+ cells occur in clusters in the white pulp and are dispersed in the red pulp of the rat and chicken spleen. At least a subset of these cells are B lymphocytes (102). Again, SOM in nerves has not been revealed in the spleen. A report by Schultzberg and colleagues (124) described IL-1-containing nerve fibres in the spleen, perhaps co-localized in sympathetic NA nerves. An early report by Felten et al. (4) indicates Met-enkephalin-containing nerves in the rodent spleen. Nohr et al.
SOM receptors are present on T cells, basophilic leukaemia cells, basophils, and mast cells, and can modulate several immune functions in vitro, including concentration-dependent modulation of spontaneous proliferation of murine splenocytes (196), inhibition of mitogen-stimulated proliferation of murine splenocytes (197), human T lymphocytes, and Molt-4b human lymphoblast Psychoimmunology today 27 cells (198), and reduction in colony-stimulating activity of murine splenocytes (199). SOM is also a major mediator of immediate hypersensitivity through its stimulation of leukocyte and monocyte chemotaxis (140), neutrophil phagocytosis (200), macrophages effector functions (142), and release of histamine and leukotrienes by basophils and mast cells (195, 201).
Decreased production of the cytokines IL-1, IL-2, IL-6, IFN-γ, and TNF-α, following GC treatment, also results in an increase in their corresponding receptors, IL-1 receptor (IL-1R) type II, IL-2Ra, IL-6Ra, IFN-γ, and TNF-R type I (326). IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-α are multifunctional proinflammatory cytokines produced primarily by activated monocytes and macrophages. In addition to their role as immunological mediators, these molecules have CNS effects, such as induction of fever, sickness, and activation of the HPA axis (discussed in greater detail later in this chapter).
A Field Guide to Germs (Revised and Updated Edition) by Wayne Biddle