By James C. Lin
The target of this fourth quantity within the sequence Advances in Electromagnetic Fields in residing structures remains similar to prior volumes: so as to add a few major advances during this region of analysis to clinical literature.
In basic, the interplay of electromagnetic fields and waves with organic structures is frequency-dependent. additionally, the mechanisms of interplay for fields at low frequencies are very diversified from these at excessive frequencies. whereas major advances are being made on many fronts, a distinct emphasis of this quantity is on present and destiny biomedical purposes of electromagnetic fields, ranging in frequency from quasi-static to the optical area. each one bankruptcy includes a accomplished presentation of a subject matter of present curiosity and becoming significance.
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Extra info for Advances in Electromagnetic Fields in Living Systems
A vectorcardiogram displaying a straight line can only be explained by assuming that the volume conduction from the fetal heart to the skin of the maternal abdomen takes place through preferred pathways. The hypothesis is that the currents escape the fetus in areas that are not covered by the vernix caseosa. Kahn  and Roche and Hohn  suggested the oronasal cavity of the fetus as a preferred pathway. Kahn further suggested a preferred pathway through the umbilical cord to the placenta.
Eng. , 322–324. H. , 2000, Sotalol in the treatment of fetal dysrhythmias, Circulation, 101(23):2721–2726. G. , 2001, Estimation of the electrical conductivity of human tissue, Electromagnetics, 21:545–557. , Bhogal K. , 2001, Compact long-term recorder for the transabdominal foetal and maternal electrocardiogram, Med. Biol. Eng. Comput, 39:118–125. , Flokstra J. , 1999, Two-stage ampliﬁer based on a double relaxation oscillation superconducting quantum interference device, Appl. Phys. letters, 75(15):2316–2318.
Using these images, models were created that consisted of three compartments, representing the fetus, the amniotic ﬂuid and the remainder of the abdominal volume (see Fig. 17). The amniotic ﬂuid and the structures within the fetus could be reasonably well distinguished in the MR-images. Details in the maternal abdomen like a layer of fat or skin could not be distinguished. However, the results mentioned previously showed that these regions of the maternal abdomen hardly inﬂuence the magnetic ﬁeld and thence a further subdivision of the maternal abdomen is not necessary.
Advances in Electromagnetic Fields in Living Systems by James C. Lin